Luteinising Hormone (LH) is produced and released in the anterior pituitary gland and is an important part of a woman’s menstrual cycle.
Oestradiol is a steroid hormone and the strongest of the three naturally-produced oestrogens. It has many functions but primarily acts to mature and maintain the female reproductive system.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone – it plays a huge role in the development of male reproductive tissues as well as promoting secondary characteristics such as muscle and bone mass, libido and growth of bodily hair.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is synthesised and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and regulates the development, growth maturation and reproductive processes of the body.
Prolactin is a protein known for its role in enabling mammals, namely females, to produce milk.
Free androgen index (FAI)
This is used to determine abnormal androgen levels. It is a ratio of total testosterone level divided by the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) level and then multiplying by a constant, usually 100. In women, an elevated FAI is seen in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In males, the FAI provides a good indication of testosterone status.
Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced by the liver which binds to certain hormones including: testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and oestrogen. Levels of SHBG are altered by medications, disease, sex steroids and insulin.
Free thyroxine (Free T4)
Free thyroxine helps to evaluate thyroid function and diagnose thyroid diseases, including hypo- and hyper-thyroidism. Free T4 is not affected by protein levels and is the active form of thyroxine.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
The thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland found in the throat, wrapped around the windpipe just below the Adam’s apple. It produces thyroid hormones which influence essentially every organ, every tissue and every cell in the body. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is produced in the pituitary gland and stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). TSH that is too high or too low indicates that your thyroid gland is not functioning correctly.