Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone – it plays a huge role in the development of male reproductive tissues as well as promoting secondary characteristics such as muscle and bone mass, libido and growth of bodily hair.
Bilirubin is a compound which plays an important role in the digestive system and the body’s removal of waste. This test measures all the yellow bilirubin pigment in the blood.
Globulins are a group of proteins made in the liver by the immune system which play an important role in liver function, blood clotting and fighting infection.
A main protein made by the liver. A low level of albumin can indicate a problem with your liver or kidneys.
This test measures albumin and all other proteins in blood, including antibodies made to help fight off infections.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme mainly found in the liver. It is the best test for detecting hepatitis.
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is an enzyme which is elevated in the blood in most diseases that can cause damage to the liver.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme related to the bile ducts. When they are blocked, levels increase either inside or outside the liver. High levels may indicate liver damage.
Triglycerides are the body’s storage form of fat. Most triglycerides are found in fat (adipose) tissue, but some circulate in the blood to provide fuel for muscles to work. Extra triglycerides are found in the blood after eating a meal — when fat is being sent from the gut to fat tissue for storage. Triglycerides are a form of lipid (fat), and are therefore included as part of a lipid profile.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is sometimes referred to as “bad” cholesterol. High levels of LDL can increase your risk of heart disease and stroke.
Cholesterol is a substance that is essential for life. It helps form the membranes for cells in all organs and tissues in your body. It is used to make hormones that are essential for development, growth and reproduction. It forms bile acids that are needed to absorb nutrients from food. Cholesterol comes both from what you eat and from your body’s own production of cholesterol, which takes place in the liver. A small amount of your body’s cholesterol circulates in the blood in complex particles called “lipoproteins”. These include some particles that carry excess cholesterol away for disposal (HDL, good cholesterol) and some particles that deposit cholesterol in tissues and organs (LDL-bad cholesterol). The test for cholesterol measures all cholesterol (good and bad) that is carried in the blood.
Total Cholesterol: HDL Ratio
This ratio examines the amount of “good” or HDL cholesterol you have in relation to your total.
Non-HDL cholesterol is the amount of “good” cholesterol, subtracted from your total cholesterol number. This will leave you with the amount of “bad” cholesterol.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is sometimes referred to as “good” cholesterol – it absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver, which in turn, “flushes” it from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol can lower your risk of heart disease and stroke.
Creatinine is a waste product produced in your muscles from the breakdown of a compound called creatine. Creatine is part of the cycle that produces the energy needed to contract your muscles.
Urea is the main component of urine and is produced by the metabolic breakdown of proteins. A high level in the blood may indicate limitations to kidney function.
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measures your level of kidney function and can be used to determine the stage of kidney disease.
The iron test measures the amount of iron that is circulating in the liquid part of blood bound to transferrin (a transport protein). Iron is an essential trace element in your blood. It is necessary for forming healthy red blood cells. Approximately 70% of iron absorbed from the diet is used to form haemoglobin, the protein within red blood cells which carries oxygen through your body. Iron is also used in the production of some other proteins, such as myoglobin in muscle, and various enzymes. Iron which is not used for protein production is stored within tissues as ferritin or hemosiderin. If not enough iron is taken in from the diet, then the stored levels of iron will drop. If the stored levels become depleted, this can lead to iron deficiency anaemia. On the other hand, absorption of too much iron can cause accumulation of iron stores in the tissues. This can cause damage to organs such as the heart, liver, and pancreas.
The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming ‘glycated’. By measuring HbA1c, we can see what blood sugars have been for 8-12 weeks.
Total Iron Binding Capacity, or TIBC, measures the total capacity of your blood to bind and transport iron, and therefore reflects your body’s iron stores. TIBC correlates with the amount of the protein transferrin in your blood, available to bind iron.
Transferrin is a protein that attaches iron molecules and transports iron in the blood plasma. Transferrin is largely made in the liver and regulates your body’s iron absorption into the blood.
The number of sites on transferrin that are not already carrying iron is referred to as unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC). This number can be added to the serum iron to calculate the TIBC.
Creatine kinase is an enzyme produced by various tissues and cell types to indicate damage or disease of the skeletal muscles.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a measure to assess inflammation in the body. This can be used to identify infections or other medical conditions. Particularly the CRP high-sensitivity (HS) test can be used to evaluate the risk of developing coronary artery disease.
Ferritin is a blood protein which contains iron and is used to understand how much iron your body stores.